Beyond Pi: 7 Underrated Single-Letter Variables and Constants

No one can deny that pi (π, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter) is a useful constant—drafted into service every day in furniture workshops, in precision toolmaking, and in middle-school and high-school mathematics classes around the world. π is used to calculate the volumes of spheres (such as weather balloons and volleyballs) and cylinders (like grain silos and cups). The cult status of this little irrational number (abbreviated 3.14 or 22/7) is so significant that March 14 (3.14) is celebrated as “Pi Day” annually. But what about other single letters, Greek and otherwise, that serve as valuable mathematical and scientific tools? Aren’t they just as important as pi? It depends on whom you talk to, of course. The following is a short list of less-famous but commonly used single-letter constants and variables.

  • G or “Big G”

    G (or “Big G”) is called the gravitational constant or Newton’s constant. It is a quantity whose numerical value depends on the physical units of length, mass, and time used to help determine the size of the gravitational force between two objects in space. G was first used by Sir Isaac Newton to figure gravitational force, but it was first calculated by British natural philosopher and experimentalist Henry Cavendish during his efforts to determine the mass of Earth. Big G is a bit of a misnomer, however, since it is very, very small, only 6.67 x 10−11 m3 kg−1s−2.

  • Delta (Δ or d)

    As any student of calculus or chemistry knows, delta (Δ or d) signifies change in the quality or the amount of something. In ecology, dN/dt (which could also be written ΔNt, with N equal to the number of individuals in a population and t equal to a given point in time) is often used to determine the rate of growth in a population. In chemistry, Δ is used to represent a change in temperature (ΔT) or a change in the amount of energy (ΔE) in a reaction.

  • Rho (ρ or r)

    Rho (ρ or r) is probably best known for its use in correlation coefficients—that is, in statistical operations that try to quantify the relationship (or association) between two variables, such as between height and weight or between surface area and volume. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r, is one type of correlation coefficient. It measures the strength of the linear relationship between two variables on a continuous scale between the values of −1 through +1. Values of −1 or +1 indicate a perfect linear relationship between the two variables, whereas a value of 0 indicates no linear relationship. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient, rs, measures the strength of the association between one variable and members of a set of variables. For example, rs could be used to rank order, and thus prioritize, the risk of a set of health threats to a community.

  • Lambda (λ)

    The Greek letter lambda (λ) is used often in physics, atmospheric science, climatology, and botany with respect to light and sound. Lambda denotes wavelength—that is, the distance between corresponding points of two consecutive waves. “Corresponding points” refers to two points or particles in the same phase—i.e., points that have completed identical fractions of their periodic motion. Wavelength (λ) is equal to the speed (v) of a wave train in a medium divided by its frequency (f): λ = v/f.

  • The imaginary number (i)

    Real numbers can be thought of as “normal” numbers that can be expressed. Real numbers include whole numbers (that is, full-unit counting numbers, such as 1, 2, and 3), rational numbers (that is, numbers that can be expressed as fractions and decimals), and irrational numbers (that is, numbers that cannot be written as a ratio or quotient of two integers, such as π or e). In contrast, imaginary numbers are more complex; they involve the symbol i, or √(−1). i can be used to represent the square root of a negative number. Since i = √(−1), then the √(−16) can be represented as 4i. These kinds of operations may be used to simplify the mathematical interpretation in electrical engineering—such as representing the amount of current and the amplitude of an electrical oscillation in signal processing.

  • The Stefan-Boltzmann constant (σ)

    When physicists are trying to calculate the amount of surface radiation a planet or other celestial body emits for a given period of time, they use the Stefan-Boltzmann law. This law states that the total radiant heat energy emitted from a surface is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. In the equation E = σT4, where E is the amount of radiant heat energy and T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin, the Greek letter sigma (σ) represents the constant of proportionality, called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. This constant has the value 5.6704 × 10−8 watt per meter2∙K4, where K4 is temperature in Kelvin raised to the fourth power. The law applies only to blackbodies—that is, theoretical physical bodies that absorb all incident heat radiation. Blackbodies are also known as “perfect” or “ideal” emitters, since they are said to emit all of the radiation they absorb. When looking at a real-world surface, creating a model of a perfect emitter by using the Stefan-Boltzmann law serves as a valuable comparative tool for physicists when they attempt to estimate the surface temperatures of stars, planets, and other objects.

  • The natural logarithm (e)

    A logarithm is the exponent or power to which a base must be raised to yield a given number. The natural, or Napierian, logarithm (with base e ≅ 2.71828 [which is an irrational number] and written ln n) is a useful function in mathematics, with applications to mathematical models throughout the physical and biological sciences. The natural logarithm, e, is often used to measure the time it takes for something to get to a certain level, such as how long it would take for a small population of lemmings to grow into a group of one million individuals or how many years a sample of plutonium will take to decay to a safe level.


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